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Let’s get into SARS CoV-2

So, the vast majority of viral infections are self-limited and with mild manifestations. However, some viruses are highly pathogenic, contagious and with the potential to cause serious disease. Just as centuries-old infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, still persist today, due to patterns of behavior (food, cleaning, management of food markets) and human transfer, new infectious contagious diseases have appeared that have even produced pandemics global. Such is the case of SARS-CoV-2.
Viruses are academically classified according to their nucleic acid structure, their capsid, and the presence or absence of envelopes. However, a more practical way of classification is by the clinical syndromes they present.

Classification: In the family of RNA type viruses is the classification of Coronaviridae, to which the coronaviruses belong, most of them causing mild upper respiratory tract infections (common cold), but also the SARS-CoV, the MERS and the current SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19), all highly contagious viruses that cause severe infections.

Principles: Coronaviruses are single chain RNA viruses, there are different strains that cause diseases in humans, the vast majority of which are the common cold. However, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome due to Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) is a particularly virulent strain that appeared in southern China in 2002, which spread to 29 countries and produced an approximate mortality of 10%. The incubation period of this disease is from 3 to 10 days, the contagion method is by means of respiratory droplets in addition to touching contaminated surfaces. No cases of SARS-CoV-1 have been detected since 2004. In 2012 another new coronavirus caused international concern called “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus” (MERS-CoV) which is a virus with a very high mortality rate. and with transmission mechanisms still uncertain, however, both viruses (SARS and MERS) share many characteristics6.Vintage Black and White Typewriter Poster

The Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee for Viral Taxonomy has decided to name this new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2. It is important to mention that because this virus has interspecies transmission, which is not yet fully understood and that today there have been no effective ways to stop this type of zoonosis, the SARS-producing coronaviruses such as CoV-1 , CoV-2 and even a possible CoV3 in the future may continue to emerge and re-emerge2.

The first 450 confirmed cases reported in China, between December 2019 and January 2020, provide us with epidemiological data that allows us to model curves of the behavior and transmissibility of the disease. The incubation period was calculated to be approximately 5.2 days with a mean appearance of symptoms of 7.5 +/- 3.4 days. The percentage of dubbing cases is estimated every 7.4 days. It was determined that the greatest contagion capacity is from person to person3.

The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to remain on surfaces after exiting the infected person was also studied. 5 surfaces were evaluated: aerosol microdroplets, plastic, stainless steel, copper and cardboard. The virus can remain viable in plastic and steel for 72 hours. In copper, no viable viruses were detected after 4 hours and in cardboard, they were 24 hours in not being detectable4.

It was shown that SARS-CoV-2 can cause infection in children between 1 and 7 years of age with manifestations of moderate to severe disease, with fever (> 39oC) and cough as the most frequent manifestations5.

It was possible to demonstrate that patients who do not present symptoms can have high viral loads on the mucosa of their upper respiratory tract and be sources of contagion despite being asymptomatic and that they can also be contagious after recovery for several days.

Historian Charles Rosenberg developed the structural archetype of an outbreak. According to Rosenberg, epidemics and pandemics unfold as social dramas in three acts. The first demonstrations are subtle, whether due to the desire to maintain security or the need to protect economic interests, citizens ignore signs that something is wrong until the acceleration of the increase in cases and deaths forces recognition reluctant. This recognition begins the second act, where people demand and some also offer explanations, both mechanistic and moral. These explanations in turn generate public responses in society, it is these responses that can make the third act as dramatic and disruptive as the disease itself.
Epidemics are eventually resolved, either by the action of society or because potential susceptible victims end, it is for this reason that epidemics put great pressure on the societies it affects.
Another dramatic aspect in the historical study of epidemics is the desire to assign those responsible. This step where governments impose authoritarian measures, which are taken by people with power and privilege to be applied to people who have neither power nor privilege, is a dynamic that fuels social conflict.
Two already well-known aspects of governments’ responses to epidemics are especially hopeless, the first is the social stigmatization suffered by people who have been designated as responsible for the problem, and the second that epidemics can also take the lives of health workers. For this reason, pandemics that have already gone down in history offer us considerable information, but only if people know the history and respond wisely to combat the pandemic7.

Health anxiety is a phenomenon that all of society experiences, to a greater or lesser extent, the vigilance that it produces can help people recognize signs and symptoms of disease early, which would help them to have preventive behavior. However, this excess anxiety can be deteriorating.
It has been shown that high levels of health anxiety can manifest itself following exposure to disease-related issues in popular media and of which there is abundance at this time with SARS-CoV-2. Contemporary cognitive behavioral models propose that high levels of health anxiety are characterized primarily by catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily changes and symptoms, distorted beliefs about health and illness, and maladaptive coping behaviors.
People with these maladaptive behaviors, in the context of outbreaks of infectious diseases, take the general recommendations to the extreme, which may include excessive hand washing, complete social isolation, and compulsive shopping instigated by panic. For example, the false sense of urgency for products needed for a quarantine causes the person with health anxiety to overspend on accumulating resources unnecessarily. This in turn has an impact to the detriment of the community that needs those resources for other purposes.
It is worth noting that people with low levels of health anxiety also generate a deleterious impact since these people can ignore the recommendations and be possible sources of contagion8.

1.Seethela, R. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine, 9th edition, chapter 122 (Virus), page 1598-1618. Elsevier Spain.

2. Lancet, The. Wu, Y. Ho, W, et al. 2020-03-21. Volume 395, number 10228, page 940-950.

3.Li, Q. Guan, X. Wu, P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infects pneumonia. NEJM DOI: 10.1056 / NEJMoa2001316.

4. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to SARS-CoV-1. 2020-03-17. NEJM DOI: 10.1056 / NEJMc2004973.

5. Detection of Covid19 in children in early January 2020 in Wuhan. 2020-03-12. NEJM DOI 10.1056 / NEJMc2003717

6.Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. 2020-03-05. N Engl J Med 2020; 382: 970-971.

7. History in a Crisis- Lessons for Covid19. 2020-03-12. NEJM DOI: 10.1056 / NEJMp2004361.

8. How Health Anxiety influences responses to viral Outbreaks like SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2020-01-04, volume 71, article 102211.

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Global Adventures

An all-inclusive week long running adventure has landed in Costa Rica!
Vacation Races innovation is taking you visit the world: Ireland, Hawaii, Iceland, Alaska, Patagonia, Banff.
We are so happy to assume the responsibility of your wellbeing during the race and helping you achieve your goals and make it to the finish-line of this amazing adventure.
So, are you coming!?
Screen Shot 2020-02-16 at 8.20.12 a.m.

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POTENCIATOR!

Have you heard of POTENCIATOR??

Potenciator has become significant for every athlete. The molecule of arginine aspartate is indicated for the prevention and treatment of amino acid deficiency states by insufficient intake of protein, due to unbalanced, restrictive diets or continuPotnciator Imagen FB-2 Julio_nous intense training sessions.

We reccomend you asking your physician and your coach about the benefits of Potenciator. Ask us too!

Endurance sports have changed, and so will you.

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La Etapa Costa Rica by Le Tour de France

La Etapa Costa Rica MapTour de France has landed in Costa Rica for a one of a kind event.

Starting from Multiplaza and heading to San Pablo; over 1,500 participants will cycle in three different categories this next May 28th.

They wil be enjoying not only the best cycling event ever produced in Costa Rica, but also the result of so many people from around the world, working together to generate a healthy and safe event.

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Radio Interview with X Sport Medic

Brian and Rafa from Primero en Deporte, had X Sport Medics medical director Luciano Riggioni talking about guidelines, medical examinations and prevention on sports related cardiac diseases.

Today you can watch the full interview on channel 15_Cabletica.

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The medical tent at the finish line for triathlons

This next image shows how a finish line should be oriented for triathlon events. Although it helps you organize your finish line for other sports activities, an event organizer should analyze every event as a unique one. (Taken from ITU World Triathlon Auckland Grand Final, 2012)Screen Shot 2016-04-19 at 3.23.19 PM

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Energía Deportiva

Energía Deportiva has been working with XSM to get the most recognized nutrition products for athletes in Costa Rica. We are talking about brands like: 1st Endurance, Honey Stinger, Cliff Bar, Jelly Beans and many others. If you need advices on these products or would like to get it in CR, please contact us.

ENO Hammocks is the other reason we feel happy this time! This amazing all-terrain product has definitely come here to stay. It’s light and compact enough for backpacking and it packs up to the size of a grapefruit. That’s right…

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ASICS

ASICS is an acronym for the Latin phrase anima sana in corpore sano which translates as “a healthy mind in a healthy body”. We feel gratified to be a part of ASICS family; our sponsor.

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Montezelba!

We are so happy to be joining Montezelba on their next adventure! X Sport Medic will be your medical and trip advisor this next january, next to Montezelba and their favourite cruise line around the Caribbean.

Medical assessment is more critical than you might think.

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Tamarindo Beach Marathon

One of the most important international sport events in our country is about to be held this weekend in Tamarindo, Costa Rica. The Tamarindo Beach Marathon. Over 4.500 competitors will gather in this beautiful Golden Coast Paradise to enjoy the run of their lives and our team is ready to work with Global Sport X Group in this exceptional event.

Last year videos from GSXG explains what this event is all about! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9eY4qjm5aA